Exploring Europe's border areas with the help of geostatistics
Hugo Poelman (European Commission - DG Regional and Urban Policy, Belgium)
The EU has a longstanding tradition of cross-border cooperation programmes, operating in all border areas of the EU.
Cross-border cooperation programme areas are defined as groups of NUTS3 regions. While this approach has obvious regulatory and implementation advantages, the assessment of needs, challenges and opportunities of border regions encounters some obstacles of data availability at NUTS3 level. In addition, the substantial size differences amongst NUTS3 regions make comparisons between border areas somewhat problematic.
The use of grid- , point- and network-based data helps to alleviate these obstacles. Firstly, grid data have been used to determine the population distribution along borders, in areas independent from the NUTS boundaries. This process has not only covered terrestrial borders, but has also been applied to refine the analytical definition of maritime border areas.
This analysis leads to a classification of NUTS3 regions according to their share of border area population.
Subsequently, the border areas can be combined with other geodata. For instance, border areas are being characterised in relationship with a classification of mountain areas, road accessibility between selected settlements can be assessed, as well as rail accessibility between all stations located in border areas.
These analytical outcomes, together with NUTS-related analysis, are expected to feed the preparation of the future EU territorial cooperation policy.
Fly across the boundary : A tracing of actual movements in air transportation network
Dongkun Yim, Suyoung Kang (Department of Geography, Seoul National University, South Korea)
Interpreting flow statistics are intellectually challenging tasks in various fields. As regards to mobility and migration, geography also deals with the different phenomena of flows. In this paper we discuss the statistics on the movements across the boundary. As a kind of “boundary problem”, statistics on intra-regional mobility or migration status reveal only a small part of the actual movements. How does it reflect the actual movements, the part of flows passing through the boundary ? Especially the frontier with a few gateways draws the flux into several paths, so that the spatial interactions between the regions are simplified to the relation of great poles. We will review this issue through the prism of the air traffic from and to Asia. In an air transportation network, a few airports support the intercontinental flights and the movements between the cities in different continents might be veiled. However, considering that air traffic data have the information of origin and destination of the movements, we can investigate the relation of the segment of flows over the boundary to their actual movements between the regions. In turn, we ask the conditions in that flow data over boundary represent the actual movements.
Income levels and inequality in metropolitan areas : a comparative approach in OECD countries
Justine Boulant, Monica Brezzi, Paolo Veneri (Regional Development Policy Division, OECD, France)
This paper assesses levels and distribution of household disposable income in OECD metropolitan areas. All indicators were produced through a dedicated data collection, which, for most countries, uses administrative data from tax records available at detailed local scale (i.e. municipalities, local authorities, counties, etc.). Using different estimation techniques, we provide internationally comparable figures for 216 OECD metropolitan areas. The results highlight stark differences in both income levels and inequality within metropolitan areas, even for those belonging to the same country. These new data allow to benchmark how metropolitan areas in OECD countries fare on many SDGs and the size of within country inequalities that may hamper reaching the SDGs.
Geospatial data and statistics at Austrian Post Office
Karel Mauric, Simone Ortner (HQ of Austrian Post, Vienna, Austria)
Austrian Post is the leading logistics and postal services provider in Austria. Its main business activities include the transport and delivery of letters, direct mail items, print media and parcels. The branch network of Austrian Post ranks among the largest private customer networks in the country, offering high-quality postal, banking and telecommunications products and services to its customers throughout Austria. The company makes an important contribution to safeguarding the nation’s communications and logistics infrastructure based on its nationwide and reliable supply of high quality postal services on behalf of the Austrian population and economy.
Geospatial information and statistics are strongly integrated in many important business solutions and internal services at the Austrian Post. Firstly, our presentation will give a short overview of the main geospatial applications with representative examples of involving/implementing statistics and demographics in the daily work of many departments of the Austrian Post. Then, using the example of a Geomarketing-Solution, the usage of statistics data will be demonstrated in more detail.
Geomarketing lets advertisers address their desired target audiences with pinpoint accuracy and without any wastage. You can define your target audiences by selecting age, purchasing power, city/town of residence, size of city/town and many other criteria. Austrian Post will then select the delivery areas and locations that fit your distribution plan and your previously defined target audience. Our database makes it happen, for it matches geographical data (such as delivery areas and postcode areas) with sociodemographic criteria (age, marital status, children, etc.) as well as socioeconomic criteria (including purchasing power).
Benefits of using Geomarketing Services
- Increased response rates
- Reduced wastage
- Saves money thanks to fewer printed materials and less postage Geomarketing is a great choice, whether you would like to address a clearly defined target audience or all people in a defined area surrounding your business.
Following options are available.
- Target audience distribution plan This option lets you define distribution areas by selecting from approximately 40 criteria including age, gender, number of children, level of education, purchasing power, etc. per area/household/person.
- Postal branch distribution plan
Relying on geomarketing to create a distribution plan based on our list of postal branches. You can select any area surrounding the postal branch of your choice, thereby determining the number of recipients. Upon request, you also have the option of adding target audience specific criteria.